Monday, November 12, 2007

Weapons and Equipment

Weapons and Equipment

Small Arms

Al-Khalid battle tank
Al-Khalid battle tank
Mohafiz armored vehicle.
Mohafiz armored vehicle.
Pakistan Army Mi-17s
Pakistan Army Mi-17s
Bell 412s
Bell 412s
Pakistan Army Baktar Shikan Anti-Tank vehicle
Pakistan Army Baktar Shikan Anti-Tank vehicle
  • Heckler & Koch MP5 9 mm carbines and the Carbine 1A 9 mm sub-machine guns*
  • Machine Gun MG3*
  • SMG PK, Type 1 & 2*
  • Assault Rifle G3, Types A3 & P4*
  • Anti Aircraft Machine Gun 12.7 mm, Type 54*
  • Steyr SSG-4 and SSG-P2 (sniper rifles) *
  • M82 Barrett rifle (US - Semi-Auto Rifle - .50 BMG)
  • AK-47 (currently being phased out) *
  • Type 81 Assault Rifle
  • M4 Carbine (in service with SF)
  • AK-103 Assault Rifle
  • Styer Sniper Rifle

*All Pakistani small arms are indigenously produced

Pakistan Army Inventory
Vehicle/System/Aircraft Firm Number in Service Status
T-80UD Main Battle Tank 320 In service.
Al Khalid Main Battle Tank 600 In Service; Currently under production
Type 85IIAP Main Battle Tank 500 In Service. Being phased out
Al-Zarar Tank Main Battle Tank 320 Currently under production
Type 69IIAP (Chinese T-59 Upgrade) 250 Being phased out by Al Khalid
T-63 & 60 Light Tank 100 Being phased out
Type 59 1200 Being phased out by Al Zarrar & Al Khalid II
M48 Patton 200 Being phased out by Al Khalid
Al-Khalid II Main Battle Tank ??? Under production.
Hamza Infantry fighting Vehicle ??? Being procured
Al-Fahd Infantry fighting vehicle 140 In Service
Talha Armoured Personnel Carrier 400+ Final number to be around 2,000
Saad Armoured Personnel Carrier ??? Currently in production
M113 Armoured Personnel Carrier 1500+ In Service
BTR-70 Armoured Personnel Carrier 169 In Service
Mohafiz Light Armoured Personnel Carrier ??? In Service & Additional APCs being procured
Scorpion Light jeep 260 In Service
Al Qaswa Logistical Vehicle ?? Being procured
M109A5 155 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer ??? 115 Ordered along with 150 A5 upgrade kits
M109A2 155 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 150 In Service
M110A2 203 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 40 In Service
M-7 105 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 50 In Service
T-56 85 mm Towed Artillery 200 In Service
M-56 105 mm Towed Artillery 80 In Service
M-101 105 mm Towed Artillery 300 In Service
T-60 122 mm Towed Artillery 200 In Service
T-54 122 mm Towed Artillery 400 In Service
T-59I 130 mm Towed Artillery 200 In Service
M-59 155 mm Towed Artillery 30 In Service
M-114 155 mm Towed Artillery 60 In Service
M-198 155 mm Towed Artillery 120 In Service
M-115 203 mm Towed Artillery 40 In Service
Panter T-155 mm Towed Artillery 12 Ordered from Turkey
AH-1F/S Cobra Attack Helicopter 70+ In Service
Bell 412 Huey Transport Helicopter 25 In Service
Bell 206 Jet Ranger Transport Helicopter 5 In Service
UH-1 Huey Transport Helicopter 10 In Service
Puma Transport Helicopter 25 In Service
Mil Mi-17 Transport Helicopter 46 Additional helicopters planned
Bell 407 Light Transport Helicopter ?? 40 On Order
Eurocopter AS-550 Light Transport Helicopter ?? Replacing Alouette III & Lama
Aerospatiale Alouette III Light Transport Helicopter ?? Being phased out
Lama Light Transport Helicopter ?? Being phased out


  • (Type) 81 mm
  • AM-ffff Series 120 mm
  • Type 63-1

Anti-tank Guided Weapons

  • TOW II (recently procured)
  • Bakter-Shikan ATGM

Army Air Defence

A SA-7 missile and launcher.
A SA-7 missile and launcher.
  • AA guns ZU-23/33 30, 36, 37 mm
  • RBS-23 BAMSE
  • RBS-70
  • SA-7 Grail
  • FIM-92 Stinger
  • FIM-43 Redeye
  • Anza MKI, Anza MKII and Anza MKIII
  • HQ-2b


List of Pakistani Strategic Missiles:

Designation Other Name Range Payload Status Inventory

Hatf-I/IA 80/100 km 500 kg Deployed 100+
Abdali Hatf-II 180 km 500 kg Deployed, Under production Unknown
Ghaznavi Hatf-III 1290 km 500 kg Deployed, Under production 100+
Shaheen-I Hatf-IV 2750 km 750 kg Deployed, Under production 75-150
Ghauri-I Hatf-V 1500 km 700-1000 kg Deployed, Under production 100+
Ghauri-II Hatf-VA 2,000km, More range with lighter payload. 1200 kg Operational, Under production 100+
Shaheen-II Hatf-VI 2,500km, More range with lighter payload. 1000+ kg Deployed, Under production 200+
Babur Hatf-VII 500 km 500 kg Deployed, Cruise Missile 400-1000
Ghauri-III Hatf-VIII 4,000 km 1000+ kg unknown
300 km 500 kg In service Unknown
3,600+ km 1000+ kg unknown
Tipu Sultan
5,000+ km 1500 kg under development

Note: every missile has nuclear payload.

The M-11 Chinese missile is in service too, which is a Short-Range Ballistic Missile with a max range of 300km it uses solid fuel and can carry a payload of around 500 kg.

In addition, there exists the Shaheen-III which is under research and development and will be solid fueled like the others in the Shaheen series. It will have a range of 3600+ km and a payload of 1000+ kg. This weapon is an Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile.

It has been recently reported by the Pakistani Press (Daily Jang) that Pakistan has the ability to MIRV its missiles. This has been seen as possibly the greatest achievement to date. It has also been reported that Pakistan would likely MIRV its Shaheen II missile.

Future Plans

Throughout the International Defence Exhibition & Seminar (IDEAS) at Karachi in November 2006, Pakistani firms have signed joint development, production and marketing agreements with defence firms from South Korea, France and Ukraine. These agreements include new reactive armour bricks, 155 mm artillery shells, and other developments in armour and land weaponry. These agreements all relate to the Pakistan Army's AFFDP-2019 modernization program of its armour, artillery and infantry.

A few months prior to IDEAS 2006, the Pakistan Army and Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) announced the development of the Al Khalid II Main Battle Tank (MBT). The Al Khalid II is poised to become the Pakistan Army's backbone main battle tank from 2012; thus replacing 1200 obsolete Chinese T-59 and 300 T-85IIAP. Not much is known about this tank, but it is reported that the Al Khalid II is a very extensive upgrade of the current Al Khalid. Other reports suggest that it will be an entirely new tank that is based off Western designs. Turkish press reported that a Pakistani armour firm will participate in the Turkey's new generation tank project. Turkey and Pakistan have signed many memorandums of understanding in various defence-related fields. Given that many Pakistani firms have signed joint agreements with Western firms, it is possible that a considerable part of the Al Khalid II's design will be influenced from the Turkish tank design. Nonetheless, the new generation tank is expected to form the backbone of the Pakistan Army's tank force; in the long-term.

The Pakistan Army will standardize its artillery capability to 155 mm by 2019. This can be seen by the acquisition of 115 M109A5 self-propelled howitzers from the United States, and joint production deals of 155 mm shells with French and South Korean firms. It is expected that the army will procure a range of light, medium and heavy towed and self-propelled howitzer artillery from China, Europe and the United States. These will replace all non-155 mm and older systems. The Army reportedly ordered and procured an undisclosed number of WS-1B Multiple Launch Rocket Systems (MLRS). As part of the artillery modernization program, the Army will likely procure a fair number of new MLRS systems of various ranges and shell sizes.

Modernization of the Army Aviation is underway with the procurement of new transport and attack helicopters from the United States, Russia and Europe. Finalized acquisitions include 26 Bell 412EP and at least a dozen Mi-17 medium-lift transport helicopters from the U.S and Russia, respectively. Forty Bell 407 and an unknown number of Fennec light helicopters from the U.S. and Eurocopter have also been ordered, respectively. Plans are underway to begin replacing the IAR 330 Puma, older Mil Mi-8/17, Bell Jet Rangers and older Huey helicopters; options include the Eurocopter NH-90 Tactical Transport Helicopter and UH-60M Blackhawk. The Pakistan Army has procured dozens of excess AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters since 2002; at least 20 have been brought into service to supplement the serving 18. The army reportedly has upgraded its entire fleet with AH-1Z King Cobra avionics and new weapon systems such as the TOW-2 and Hellfire missiles. Up to 30 new-generation attack helicopters will be procured to further enhance the Army's attack aviation arm; options include the Eurocopter Tiger, South African AH-2 Rooivalk and Boeing AH-64D Apache Longbow.

  • Pakistan Army (PakA)
  • "Pakistan army is deep into business", Marketplace, November 6, 2007

Military of Pakistan
Pakistan Army | Pakistan Navy | Pakistan Air Force

Rank Structure and Uniform Insignia

Rank Structure and Uniform Insignia

Pakistani Officer Ranks
Rank Field Marshal (5-Star) General (4-Star) Lieutenant General (3-Star) Major General (2-Star) Brigadier (1-Star) Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant 2nd Lieutenant
NATO equivalent OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF-1
Uniform insignia

Pakistani Junior Commissioned Officer (JCO) and Enlisted Ranks
Rank Subedar Major (JCO) Subedar (JCO) Naib Subedar (JCO) Battalion Havildar Major Battalion Quartermaster Havildar Company Havildar Major Company Quatermaster Havildar Havildar Naik Lance Naik Jawan
NATO equivalent None None None OR-9 OR-8 OR-8 OR-7 OR-5/6 OR-4 OR-3 OR-1/2
Uniform insignia

No Insignia


The Nishan-e-Haider (Urdu: نشان حیدر) (Sign of the Lion), is the highest military award given by Pakistan.

Recipients Nishan-e-Haider recipients receive an honorary title as a sign of respect: Shaheed meaning martyr for deceased recipients and Ghazi meaning victor for living recipients.

  1. Captain Muhammad Sarwar Shaheed (1910–July 27, 1948)
  2. Major Tufail Muhammad Shaheed (1914–August 7, 1958)
  3. Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed (1928–September 10, 1965)
  4. Major Muhammad Akram Shaheed (1938–1971)
  5. Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas Shaheed(Air Force) (1951–August 20, 1971)
  6. Major Shabbir Sharif Shaheed (1943–December 6, 1971)
  7. Jawan Sowar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed (1949–December 10, 1971)
  8. Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz Shaheed (1944–December 17, 1971)
  9. Captain Karnal Sher Khan Shaheed (1970–July 5, 1999)
  10. Lalak Jan Shaheed (1967–July 7, 1999)

Special Forces

Main article: Special Services Group

The Special Service Group (SSG) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Army. It is an elite special operations force similar to the British Special Air Service and the United States Army Special Forces (Green Berets). Official numbers are put between 2,500 to 3,000; however the actual strength is classified. It is estimated to have been increased to 4 Battalions, with the eventual formation of 2 Brigades of Special Forces (6 Battalions).



Recruitment is nationwide and the army attempts to maintain an ethnic balance but most enlisted recruits, as in British times, come from a few districts in northern Punjab Province and the adjacent Azad Kashmir and the North West Frontier Province. Pakistan's Officer Corps are also mostly from Punjab and the North West Frontier Province and of middle-class, rural backgrounds. This has caused some resentment to the other ethnic groups in Pakistan especially when the Army conducts operation in those areas where Punjabis are not a majority. The army has been criticized by the locals for lacking ethnic sensitivity. Efforts have been undertaken to recruit more ethnic groups such as Sindhis, and Balochis into the Pakistani Army.

Minorities in Pakistan are allowed to sit in all examinations, including the one conducted by Inter Services Selection Board however the proportion of religious minorities in the Pakistan army is still considerably very less. The first Sikh officer was recently inducted into the army and is expected to set the tone for future recruitment for minorities.[21] The Pakistan army also recruited a Hindu for the first time in its 60-year-old history. [22] The army sees itself as a national institution and thus many non-Muslim officers (including Qadiyanis) have achieved high ranks within the army[23].

Women and Minorities in the Army

Women and Minorities in the Army

Female cadets of Pakistan Military Academy stand guard at Quaid-e-Azam’s mausoleum.
Female cadets of Pakistan Military Academy stand guard at Quaid-e-Azam’s mausoleum.


Women have served in the Pakistani Army since its foundation. Currently, there is a sizable number of Women serving in the army. Most women are recruited in the regular Army to perform medical and educational work. There is also a Women's Guard section of Pakistan's National Guard where women are trained in nursing, welfare and clerical work and there are also women recruited in very limited numbers for the Janbaz Force. Only recently has Pakistan began to recruit women for combat positions and the Elite Anti-Terrorist Force recently graduated women candidates to be Sky Marshals for Pakistan based airlines.[18] In addition recently eight of the 41 cadets from the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul became the first women guards of honour.[19] Pakistan is the only country in the Islamic world to have women Major Generals in the Army.[20]

Relief Operations and Economic Development

Relief Operations and Economic Development

Pakistani Soldiers carry tents away from an American Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter October 19, 2005
Pakistani Soldiers carry tents away from an American Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter October 19, 2005

In times of natural disaster, such as the great floods of 1992 or the October 2005 devastating earthquake, army engineers, medical and logistics personnel, and the armed forces played a major role in bringing relief and supplies.

The army also engaged in extensive economic activities. Most of these enterprises, such as stud and dairy farms, were for the army's own use, but others performed functions beneficial to the local civilian economy. Army factories produced such goods as sugar, fertilizer, and brass castings and sold them to civilian consumers.

Several army organizations performed functions that were important to the civilian sector across the country. For example, the National Logistics Cell was responsible for trucking food and other goods across the country; the Frontier Works Organization built the Karakoram Highway to China; and the Special Communication Organization maintained communications networks in remote parts of Pakistan.

Personnel Training

Enlisted ranks

Most enlisted personnel used to come from rural families, and many have only rudimentary literacy skills, but with the increase in the litracy level the requirements have been raised to Matriculate level (10th Grade). Recruits are processed gradually through a paternalistically run regimental training center, taught the official language, Urdu, if necessary, and given a period of elementary education before their military training actually starts.

In the thirty-six-week training period, they develop an attachment to the regiment they will remain with through much of their careers and begin to develop a sense of being a Pakistani rather than primarily a member of a tribe or a village. Enlisted men usually serve for eighteen years, during which they participate in regular training cycles and have the opportunity to take academic courses to help them advance.

[edit] Officer Ranks

[[Image:Pakofficerexercise.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Pakistan Army officer conducting helicopter assault exercise with US Army at Fort Benning ]]

About 320 men enter the army bi-annually through the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul in Abbottabad in the North West Frontier Province; a small number--especially physicians and technical specialists--are directly recruited, and these persons are part of the heart of the officer corps. The product of a highly competitive selection process, members of the officer corps have completed twelve years of education and spend two years at the Pakistan Military Academy, with their time divided about equally between military training and academic work to bring them up to a baccalaureate education level, which includes English-language skills.

The army has twelve other training establishments, including schools concentrating on specific skills such as infantry, artillery, intelligence, or mountain warfare. A National University of Science and Technology (NUST) has been established which has absorbed the existing colleges of engineering, signals, and electrical engineering. At the apex of the army training system is the Command and Staff College at Quetta, one of the few institutions inherited from the colonial period. The college offers a ten-month course in tactics, staff duties, administration, and command functions through the division level. Students from foreign countries, including the United States, have attended the school but reportedly have been critical of its narrow focus and failure to encourage speculative thinking or to give adequate attention to less glamorous subjects, such as logistics.

The senior training institution for all service branches is the National Defence University. Originally established in 1971 at Rawalpindi, to provide training in higher military strategy for senior officers, the school house was relocated to Islamabad in 1995. It also offers courses that allow civilians to explore the broader aspects of national security. In a program begun in the 1980s to upgrade the intellectual standards of the officer corps and increase awareness of the wider world, a small group of officers, has been detailed to academic training, achieving master's degrees and even doctorates at universities in Pakistan and abroad.

Pakistani officers were sent abroad during the 1950s and into the 1960s for training in Britain and other Commonwealth countries, and especially to the United States, where trainees numbering well in the hundreds attended a full range of institutions ranging from armored and infantry schools to the higher staff and command institutions. After 1961 this training was coordinated under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, but numbers varied along with vicissitudes in the United States-Pakistan military relationship. Of some 200 officers being sent abroad annually in the 1980s, over two-thirds went to the United States, but the cessation of United States aid in 1990 entailed suspension of the IMET program. In 1994 virtually all foreign training was in Commonwealth countries. However, after the 9/11 attacks, Pakistan again has begun sending officers to US Army schools. Today there are more than 400 officers serving in foreign countries.

Officers retire between the ages of fifty-two and sixty, depending on their rank.

Fauji Foundation

Fauji Foundation (established in 1954) is a charitable trust, operating on a completely self sustaining basis, channeling approximately 80% of the profits from commercial ventures into social protection programmes that serve a beneficiary population representing approximately 7% of the country’s population. [16]

Spending more than Rs. 21 billion since inception on welfare, the Foundation provides services in the areas of healthcare, education, educational stipends, technical and vocational training.

  • Over 2.1 million patients treated per year through the FF Healthcare System
  • Approximately 38,000 students enrolled in the FF Education System
  • Approximately 70,000 educational stipends dispersed each year
  • Over 6,000 individuals trained annually through the Vocational & Technical Training Centres
Considered the most sustainable social protection mechanism in the country, Fauji Foundation provides welfare services to approximately 10 million individuals on a completely sustainable basis. Running autonomously for over 50 years, the foundation has been providing healthcare, education, vocational and technical training to over 7% of the country’s population through 294 welfare projects. [

Political Power of the Army

in October 1999 overthrowing the last democratically elected government led by he Pakistani army has always played an integral part of the Pakistan government and politics since its inception. It has virtually remained as the 3rd party that has seized power every now and then in the name of stabilizing Pakistan. The first of them was General Ayub Khan who came to power through a coup in 1958. Later, General Yahya Khan would assume power in 1969. After the 71 war the democratic setup was restored only to be cut short in 1977 after a coup which saw the end of another democratically elected Government and the Hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Pakistani Premier. General Zia ul-Haq ruled as a dictator virtually unopposed until his death in 1988. Despite the exit of the army from mainstream politics, the political muscle of the military was everpresent. The current President, General Pervez Musharraf, came to power in a bloodless coupNawaz Sharif.

Pakistan Contribution in UN Peace Keeping Missions

  • UN Operation in Congo (ONUC) 1960-1964
  • UN Security Force in New Guinea, West Irian (UNSF) 1962-1963
  • UN Yemen Observer Mission Yemen (UNYOM) 1963-1964
  • UN Transition Assistance Group in Namibia (UNTAG) 1989-1990
  • UN Iraq-Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM) 1991-2003
  • UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) 1993-1996
  • UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 1992-1993
  • UN Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM) 1992-1995
  • UN Protection Forces in Bosnia (UNPROFOR) 1992-1995
  • UN Observer Mission for Rawanda (UNAMIR) 1993-1996
  • UN Verification Mission in Angola (UNAVEM III) 1995-1997
  • UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia (UNTAES) 1996-1997
  • UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) 1996-2002
  • UN Assistance Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 2001-2005
  • UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) 1999-to-date
  • UN Mission in Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) 2003-to-date
  • UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) 2003-to-date
  • UN Mission in Ivory Coast (ONUCI) 2004-to-date
  • UN Mission in Burundi (ONUB) 2004-to-date
  • UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) 2005-to-date
  • UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) 1999-to-date

Pakistan Army Role in Peacekeeping

n the wake of the new world power equilibrium a more complex security environment has emerged. It is characterized by growing national power politics and state implosions which have necessitated involvement of the United Nations peace keeping forces for conflict resolution.

The United Nations has been undertaking peace keeping operations since its inception, but the need for employment of peace keeping forces has increased manifold since the Gulf War. In 1992 there were 11000 Blue Berets deployed around the world, by the end of the year the figure rose to 52000. Presently it exceeds a staggering figure of 80,000 troops.

Pakistan, which firmly believes in the purposes and the principles of the United Nations Charter has, since 1960, been actively participating in the United Nations multi-national efforts to maintain peace and order around the globe. Its contribution to United Nations peace-keeping has been as wide ranging a the varied cultural, geographic, political and security conditions in which it had to operate.

Pakistan’s participation in peace-keeping activities of the United Nations reflects its belief in the brotherhood of mankind and its commitment to peace across the globe. The humble contribution it has made in this regard bespeaks its desire to see the principles of human dignity, freedom and self-determination applied to all the peoples struggling to secure their inalienable basic rights.

Pakistan's participation in peacekeeping activities of the United Nations reflects its belief in the brotherhood of mankind and its commitment to peace across the globe. Ever since its participation in first UN Peace Keeping Mission in Congo in 1960. Pakistan has remain committed to this cause.

History of the Pakistani Army

1947 - 1958

The Pakistani Army was created on June 30, 1947 with the division of the British Indian Armyartillery and eight infantry regiments compared to the forty armoured, forty artillery and twenty one infantry regiments that went to India.[15]Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Regular army units joined the invasion later on but were pushed back by the Indians but not before occupying the northwestern part of Kashmir (roughly 40% of Kashmir). During the 1950s, the Pakistani Army received large amounts of economic and military aid from United States and Great Britain after signing two Mutual Defense Treaties, Central Treaty Organization, (Cento) also known as the Baghdad Pact and SEATO, (South East Asian Treaty Organization) in 1954. This aid greatly expanded the Army from its modest beginnings. and Pakistan received six armoured, eight Fearing that India would take over the disputed region of Kashmir, the newly created Pakistani Army sent in irregulars and tribal groups in 1947 which lead to the

1958 - 1969

Pakistani soldiers at the Indian town of Khemkaran in the 1965 Indo-Pak War.
Pakistani soldiers at the Indian town of Khemkaran in the 1965 Indo-Pak War.

The Army seized control of Pakistan for the first time when General Ayub Khan came to power through a bloodless coup in 1958. Tensions with India continued in the 1960s and a brief border skirmish was fought near the Rann of Kutch area during April 1965, when the Indian Army was caught unprepared.

Ayub khan wanted to divert attention of population from the internal troubles so planned to liberate kashmir from India. He expected people of kashmir would join and revolt against Indian rule. The army attacked Indian positions along the border in kasmir to which India responded by airstrikes and counter attacks. In the end the war proved a waste of time and resources as nothing was achieved. India asked for a cease fire and Pakistan accepted under international pressure.

Popular uprising against General Ayub Khan, during 1968 and 1969 resulted in Ayub Khan relinquishing his office as President and Chief of Pakistan Army in favor of General Yahya Khan who assumed power in 1969.

1969 - 1977

During the rule of General Yahya Khan, the Bengalis protested their poor conditions and civil unrest broke out in East Pakistan amidst widespread human rights abuses carried out by the Pakistani Army. The civil unrest led to what is known as Pakistani Civil War by Pakistanis and "Muktijuddho" or Bangladesh Liberation War. India joined the war on the side of Bangladesh and within a fortnight of fighting between India and Pakistan, on the 16th of December, 1971, over 90,000 Pakistani Soldiers and Officers surrendered and Bangladesh became a republic. Consequently, Pakistan army was modernized at a faster pace than ever before. After the war, General Yahya Khan resigned and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto took over the reins.

1977 - 1999

In 1977 the Pakistan Army took over the government of Pakistan after a coup by General Zia ul-Haq, which saw the end of another democratically elected government leading to the hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, after he was tried and found guilty of conspiracy of murdering a politician named Kasuri. General Zia ul-Haq ruled as a military dictator until his mysterious explosion aircraft death in 1988.

Pakistani army also helped the Saudi Arabian Government in regaining the control of the Kaaba with the help of French Commandos. Pakistani and French security forces retook the shrine in a battle which left approximately 250 dead, and 600 wounded. Pakistani and French troops reportedly entered the Grand Mosque and flooded it with water; applied electricity to it; and electrocuted most of the rebels. Other reports said that paralysing gas was used. Still others say the highly trained French GIGN counter-terrorist commandos led the assault. The Pakistanis and French were called in after poor results from assaults by the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG). 127 were reported to have been killed.

In the mid-1970s the Pakistani Army was involved in fighting a popular uprising in Baluchistan. Various Baluchi factions, some with the oblique support of the USSR, wanted independence or at least greater provincial rights. The rebellion was put down but the Army suffered heavy casualties. With the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the United States began to provide large scale military and economic aid to Pakistan to modernize its conventional military capability and, ostensibly at least, prevent any Soviet attacks on it. This aid was also intended as an incentive for Pakistan to aid guerrilla forces in Afghanistan. The SSG created a unit called the Black Storks in which SSG commandos were dressed up as Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet-Afghan war. They were then flown into Afghanistan and provided the Mujahideen with support. The United States allocated about 40% of its assistance package to non-reimbursable credits for military purchases, the fourth largest program after Israel,Egypt, and Turkey. The remainder of the aid program was devoted to economic assistance.

After the Soviets withdrew by 1989 and the Pakistani Nuclear weapons program nearing maturity, Pakistan was placed under sanctions by USA in 1990. Various weapon systems ordered by Pakistan such as F-16 Jets were not delivered but various amendments have authorized return of spare parts and end items already paid for by Pakistan. There was a period of international sanctions due to Pakistan's nuclear tests. During 1999 the Pakistan Army for the fourth time overthrew a democratically elected government which resulted in additional sanctions being placed against Pakistan

The Army fought a brief but bloody border skirmish with India in Kargil 1999.

1999 - Present

In October 1999 the Pakistan Army for the fourth time overthrew a democratically elected government which resulted in additional sanctions being placed against Pakistan, resulting in the current President, General Pervez Musharraf, coming to power in a bloodless coup. Musharraf had initially pledged to step down as Army chief in 2005, however, he changed his mind, indicating that he may step down as Army chief in 2007 and hold democratic elections.

In October 2007, General Musharraf ran for president in a controversial election, in uniform. A case was brought before the Supreme Court of Pakistan questioning the ability of the serving Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army taking part in politics and being able to run for president. While the case was still pending with the Supreme Court, General Musharraf fearing a decision against him, suspended the constitution and proclaimed a Martial Law under the guise of emergency. This was followed by widespread arrests of lawyers, political workers, teachers and members of civil society in general.

Since the 9/11 incident, Pakistan unrecognized Taliban and has become a key ally of USA in the fight against terrorism. As part of United States war on terrorism, the army has moved over 80,000 troops to the Pakistan-Afghan border to patrol against extreme elements cross border infiltration. The Army has started new operations in Waziristan and Swat in late 2007, which have resulted in over 600 militants killed.

The Pakistan Army commenced counter insurgency operations in Baluchistan from 2004. With some of the heaviest fighting taking place in 2006 resulting in the killing of the leader of the Nawab Akbar Bugti and the supression of the Baluchistan Liberation Army.

Present commanders

This list of generals and lieutenant generals is maintained according to their seniority in the army.
  • General Pervez Musharraf — Chief of Army Staff.
  • General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani — Vice Chief of Army Staff.
  • General Tariq Majid — Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
  • Lt Gen Safdar Hussain[4] — Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS), GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Syed Athar Ali[3] — DG Joint Staff, JS HQ.
  • Lt Gen Waseem Ahmed Ashraf[7] — Corps Commander Gujranwala.
  • Lt Gen Mohammed Sabir[4] — Military Secretary, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Imtiaz Hussain[7] — Adjutant General, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Afzal Muzaffar[8] — Quartermaster General (QMG), GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Hamid Rab Nawaz[6] — IG T&E, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Salahuddin Satti[9] — Chief of General Staff (CGS), GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Syed Sabahat Hussain[3] — Chairman Pakistan Ordnance Factories.
  • Lt Gen Raza Khan[6] — Corps Commander Bahawalpur.
  • Lt Gen Masood Aslam[6] — Corps Commander Peshawar.
  • Lt Gen Shafaatullah Shah[4] — Corps Commander Lahore.
  • Lt Gen Hamid Khan[6] — President National Defence University.
  • Lt Gen Israr Ahmed Ghumman[10] — DG Heavy Industries Taxila.
  • Lt Gen Ahsan Azhar Hayat[3] — Corps Commander Karachi.
  • Lt Gen Nadeem Ahmad[3] — Deputy Chairman ERRA (Earthquake Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Authority).
  • Lt Gen Sajjad Akram[3] — Corps Commander Mangla.
  • Lt Gen Muhammad Zaki[3] — DG Infantry, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Sikandar Afzal[3] — Corps Commander Multan.
  • Lt Gen Ijaz Ahmed Bakhshi[3] — DG W&E, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Mushtaq Ahmed Baig[11] — Surgeon General, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Khalid Shamim Wyne[6] — Corps Commander Quetta.
  • Lt Gen Mohammad Ashraf Saleem[7] — Commander Army Air Defence Command.
  • Lt Gen Shahid Niaz[7] — Engineer-in-Chief Pakistan Army.
  • Lt Gen Muhammad Yousaf[7] — Vice Chief of General Staff, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Syed Absar Hussain[7] — Commander, ASFC.
  • Lt Gen Javed Zia[5] — Deputy Chief of General Staff (DCGS), GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Shujaat Zamir Dar[12] — DG NAB (Punjab).
  • Lt Gen Mohsin Kamal[5] — Corps Commander Rawalpindi.
  • Lt Gen Muhammad Asghar[5] — Rector, NUST.
  • Lt Gen Jamil Haider[5] — DG C4I, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Nadeem Taj — DG ISI.
  • Maj Gen Nasir Janjua[13] — DG MO (Military Operations).
  • Maj Gen Zahid Hussain[13] — Commandant, PMA.
  • Maj Gen Mian Nadeem Ijaz Ahmed[14] — DG MI.
  • Maj Gen Waheed Arshad — DG ISPR.


There are 9 Corps located at various garrisons all over Pakistan.

Corps HQ Location Major Formations under Corps Commander
I Corps Mangla, Punjab 6th Armored Division (Kharian), 17th Infantry Division (Kharian), 37th Infantry Division (Gujranwala) Lt Gen Sajjad Akram[3]
II Corps Multan, Punjab 1st Armored Division (Multan), 14th Infantry Division (Okara) Lt Gen Sikandar Afzal[3]
IV Corps Lahore, Punjab 10th Infantry Division (Lahore), 11th Infantry Division (Lahore) Lt Gen Shafaatullah Shah[4]
V Corps Karachi, Sindh 16th Infantry Division (Pano Akil), 18th Infantry Division (Hyderabad) Lt Gen Ahsan Azhar Hayat[3]
X Corps Rawalpindi, Punjab FCNA (Gilgit), 12th Infantry Division (Murree), 19th Infantry Division (Mangla), 23rd Infantry Division (Jhelum) Lt Gen Mohsin Kamal[5]
XI Corps Peshawar, North West Frontier Province 7th Infantry Division (Peshawar), 9th Infantry Division (Kohat) Lt Gen Masood Aslam[6]
XII Corps Quetta, Balochistan 33rd Infantry Division (Quetta), 41st Infantry Division (Quetta) Lt Gen Khalid Shamim Wyne[6]
XXX Corps Gujranwala, Punjab 8th Infantry Division (Sialkot), 15th Infantry Division (Sialkot) Lt Gen Waseem Ahmed Ashraf[7]
XXXI Corps Bahawalpur, Punjab 35th Infantry Division (Bahawalpur), 40th Infantry Division (Okara) Lt Gen Raza Muhammad Khan


  • The President's Bodyguard
  • Armour
    • 4th Cavalry
    • 5th Horse
    • 6th Lancers
    • 7th Lancers
    • 8th Lancers
    • 9th Lancers
    • Guides Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 11th Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 12th Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 13th Lancers
    • 15th Lancers
    • 19th Lancers
    • 20th Lancers
    • 22nd Cavalry
    • 23rd Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 24th Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 25th Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 26th Cavalry Bold textPATHAN REGIMENT
    • 27th Cavalry
    • The President's Bodyguard formed at independence from members of the Governor General's Bodyguard, itself successor to the Governor's Troop of Moghals raised in 1773
      *5th Horse is the successor to the 1st Sikh Irregular Cavalry (Wales's Horse), and the 2nd Sikh Irregular Cavalry, both raised in 1857
      *6th Lancers is the successor to The Rohilkhand Horse raised in 1857, and the 4th Sikh Irregular Cavalry raised in 1858
      *Guides Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the successor to the Corps of Guides raised in 1846
      *11th Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the successor to 1st Regiment of Punjab Cavalry and 3rd Regiment of Punjab Cavalry, both raised in 1849
      *13th Lancers is the successor to the 1st Native Troop raised in 1804, and the 2nd Native Troop raised in 1816
      *19th Lancers is the successor to the 2nd Mahratta Horse (Tiwana Horse) raised in 1858, and Fane's Horse raised in 1860
      *25th Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the famous unit which stopped Indian armour thrust in Chawinda in 1965
      *The Punjab Regiment formed in 1956 from the 1st, 14th, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments; can be traced back to the 3rd Battalion of Coast Sepoys raised in 1759
      *The Baloch Regiment formed in 1956 from the 8th Punjab Regiment, The Baluch Regiment, and The Bahawalpur Regiment; can be traced back to the 3rd Extra Madras Battalion raised in 1798
      *The Frontier Force Regiment is the successor to the Frontier Brigade raised in 1846
      *The Azad Kashmir Regiment was raised in 1947, became part of the army in 1971
      *The Sindh Regiment was raised in 1980 from battalions of the Punjab Regiment and Baloch Regiment
      *The Northern Light Infantry was formed in 1977 from various paramilitary units of scouts, became part of the army in 1999 after the Kargil War
      *The Special Service Group was formed in 1959 around a cadre from the Baluch Regiment

    • 28th Cavalry
    • 29th Cavalry
    • 30th Cavalry
    • 31st Cavalry
    • 32nd Cavalry
    • 33rd Cavalry
  • 41st Horse (Frontier Force)
    • 52nd Cavalry
    • 53rd Cavalry


Each battalion is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel and has roughly 600 to 900 soldiers under his command. This number varies depending on the functionality of the battalion. A battalion comprises either three batteries (in case of artillery and air defence regiments - generally named Papa, Quebec, Romeo, and Sierra) or four companies (in case of infantry regiments - generally named Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, and Delta - and other arms excluding armored units that are organized into squadrons) each under the command of a major and comprising of individual subunits called sections (which are further divisible into platoons and squads).[2]


  • Brigade: A Brigade is under the command of a Brigadier or sometimes a Colonel and comprises three or more Battalions of different units depending on its functionality. An independent brigade would be one that primarily consists of an artillery unit, an infantry unit, an armour unit and logistics to support its actions. Such a brigade is not part of any division and is under direct command of a corps.


Division: Each division is commanded by a Major General, and usually holds three Brigades including infantry, artillery, engineers and communications units in addition to logistics (supply and service) support to sustain independent action. Except for the Divisions operating in the mountains, all the Divisions have at least one armoured unit, some have even more depending upon their functionality. The most major of all ground force combat formations is the infantry division. Such a division would primarily hold three infantry brigades. There are 19 Infantry divisions, 2 Armored Divisions and 1 Artillery Division in the Pakistani Army.


A Corp in the Pakistani Army usually consists of two or more Divisions and is commanded by a Lieutenant General. Currently the Pakistani Army has 9 Corps. The tenth one is the recently raised Army Strategic Force Command (ASFC), responsible for bearing the national strategic and nuclear assets. Initially a Division, but then raised to the status of a Corps.

Structure of Army units

The Pakistani Army is divided into two main branches which are Arms and Services. Arms include infantry, artillery, armor, engineers,medical and communications and Services includes ordnance Corps, maintenance and repair Corps, electrical & mechanical engineering (EME) corps, supply & transport corps (ASC), education corps (AEC), military police corps, and the remount, veterinary, and farm corps.

List of Chiefs of Army Staff

  1. General Sir Frank Messervy (August 15, 1947 - February 10, 1948)[1]
  2. General Sir Douglas David Gracey (February 11, 1948 - January 16, 1951)[1]
  3. Field Marshal Ayub Khan (January 16, 1951 - October 26, 1958)[1]
  4. General Musa Khan (October 27, 1958 - June 17, 1966)[1]
  5. General Yahya Khan (June 18, 1966 – December 20, 1971)[1]
  6. General Gul Hassan (December 20, 1971 - March 3, 1972)[1]
  7. General Tikka Khan (March 3, 1972 – March 1, 1976)[1]
  8. General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (April 1, 1976 - August 17, 1988)[1]
  9. General Mirza Aslam Beg (August 17, 1988 - August 16, 1991)[1]
  10. General Asif Nawaz (August 16, 1991 - January 8, 1993)[1]
  11. General Wahid Kakar (January 8, 1993 - December 1, 1996)[1]
  12. General Jehangir Karamat (December 1, 1996 - October 6, 1998)[1]
  13. General Pervez Musharraf (October 7, 1998–present)[1]


The Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), formerly called the Commander in Chief (C in C), is challenged with the responsibility of commanding the Pakistani Army. The COAS operates from army headquarters in Rawalpindi, near Islamabad. The Principal Staff Officers assisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant General level include a Chief of General Staff (CGS), who supervises the day to day running of the army, Director General Military Operations (DGMO), responsible for the overall operational planning; the Master General of Ordnance (MGO); the Quarter-Master General (QMG); the Adjutant General (AG); the Inspector General of Training and Evaluation (IGT&E); and the Military Secretary (MS). The headquarters function also includes the Judge Advocate General (JAG), and the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Chief of the Corps of Engineers (E-in-C)who is also head of Military Engineering Service (MES), all of them also report to the Chief of the Army Staff.

The motto of the Pakistani Army

The motto of the Pakistani Army reads: "Iman, Taqwa, Jihad fi Sabilillah". Translated into English, it means "Faith, Piety, to strive in the path of Allah".


The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations.

The Pakistan Army, combined with the NAVYE and Air ForCE makes Pakistan's armed forces the 7th largest military in the world. The Army is modelled on the United KingdoM armed forces and came into existence after the independence in 1947. It has an active force of 620,000 personnel and 600,000 men in reserve that continue to serve until the age of 45. The Pakistani Army is a volunteer force and has been involved in many conflicts with India. Combined with this rich combat experience, the Army is also actively involved in contributing to United Nations peacekeeping efforts. Other foreign deployments have consisted of Pakistani Army personnel as advisers in many African, South Asian and Arab countries. The Pakistani Army maintained division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the past Arab-Israeli Wars, and the first Gulf War to help the Coalition. The Pakistani Army is led by the Chief of Army Staff, currently Pervez Musharraf, who is also the President of Pakistan

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